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Memory Formation Research

@@Home -> NeoCortexResearch -> MemoryFormation


Memory Prediction research covers using HTM/Memory Prediction theory for memorizing and recognizing complex patterns, produce internal representation.


  • short-term memory - lasts for max 18 seconds
  • long-term memory - lasts for day or years (undergo forgetting process) - declarative and procedural
  • declarative memory - all memories that are consciously available - episodic and semantic
  • episodic memory - memory for specific events in time
  • semantic memory - knowledge about the external world
  • procedural memory - how to perform certain motor behaviour

Long-term memory (LTM)

as per Wikipedia:

  • declarative memory - encoded by hippocampus (also by enthorinal and perirhinal) but consolidated somewhere else - probably in temporal cortex
  • procedural memory - encoded and probably stored in cerebellum / striatum
  • emotional memory - related to amygdala

Sensory Neocortex

  • recognize and predict functions, as per Jeff Hawkins
  • long-term memory formation by hippocampus - how it is related to neocortex?
  • do we have short-term memory in neocortex?

Current Understanding:

  • information is supplied by discrete events (not as ongoing flow) - e.g. saccades, which supply fragmentary information to visual neocortex 3 times per second
  • neocortex holds generalization structures, averaged perceived information, not episodic memory
  • association cortex and frontal cortex (holds feelings) supply feedback via cingulate gyrus to sensory cortex and hippocampus
    • associations and emotionally stressed data are stored easier
  • temporal cortex (TC) lies between visual sensory cortex (VC) and hippocampus (HC)
    • LTM is not stored by hippocampus, but hippocampus is absolutely required to create LTM as per HM patient
    • hippocampus is not required to keep short-term memory (18 seconds)
    • most appropriate place for LTM is temporal cortex
    • VC perceives primary sensory information and transforms to stable internal representation
    • VC -> TC flow supplies flow of internal representations, or signal of inability to recognize/predict; TC -> VC is unclear
    • HC -> TC flow represents control of memorising by hippocampus