PeripheralBrain

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Peripheral Brain Research

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This page is intended to create model of peripheral part of biological human brain. It contain muscles, nerves, spinal cord nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei and linked upper brain regions.

Peripheral Brain Details

See also:

INNER REGIONS

(generated)

nucleus:

  • Autonomic Nuclei
    • ISL: Inferior Salivatory Nucleus,LAC.HL.SAL.ISL - facilitate digestion - produce watery saliva (preganglionic parasympathetic nucleus; project to otic ganglion to parotid and lingual (von Ebner) salivatory glands; posterior pulmonary plexus - motor fibers are derived from inferior salivatory nucleus; glossopharyngeal nerve); TRACTS={}
    • SSL: Superior Salivatory Nucleus,LAC.HL.SAL.SSL - facilitate respiration - produce thiker saliva (preganglionic parasympathetic nucleus; project to submaxillary (submandibular) ganglion to submandibular/sublingual salivatory glands; to sphenopalatine ganglion to superior maxillary nerve as vasodilator and secretory fibers to the mucous membrane of the nose, soft palate, tonsils, uvula, roof of the mouth, upper lips and gums, parotid and orbital glands; facial nerve); TRACTS={}
    • VGN: Vagus Nucleus,LAC.HL.VGN - Parasympathetic vagal functions in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs (Dorsal Motor Nucleus, Cardioinhibitory Center; preganglionic nucleus); TRACTS={}
    • EWN: Edinger-Westphal Nucleus,LAC.MM.EWN - Change Eye Pupil (Parasympathetic nucleus, parvocellular extention of OCN); TRACTS={}
    • CSC: Ciliospinal Center,LAC.SC.IZ.CSC - Control of iris dilator muscle (Budge's Center, intermediolateral cell column); TRACTS={hypothalamospinal tract}
    • IML: Intermediolateral Nucleus,LAC.SC.IZ.IML - Mediate entire sympathetic innervation of body (from Lamina VII, visceral sensory); TRACTS={hypothalamospinal tract; medullary reticulospinal tract}
    • SPS: Sacral Parasympathetic Nucleus,LAC.SC.IZ.SPS - parasympathetic impulses pass via postganglionic fibers to the urinary bladder, erectile tissues, and the smooth muscles and glands in the colon and rectum (from Lamina VII, visceral parasympathetic); TRACTS={}
  • Cranial Mechanoreception and Proprioception
  • Cranial Motor
  • Cranial Pain and Temperature
  • Spinal Lateral Motor Nuclei (distal muscles motor neurons)
  • Spinal Mechanoreception and Proprioception
    • ACN: Accessory Cuneate Nucleus,LPC.HL.ACU - receives input from cervical spinal nerves and transmits that information to cerebellum (upper extremity equivalent of Clarke's column); TRACTS={cuneocerebellar tract}
    • CUN: Cuneate Nucleus,LPC.HL.CU - Carry fine touch and proprioceptive information from upper body; TRACTS={fasciculus cuneatus tract}
    • GRN: Gracile Nucleus,LPC.HL.GR - Carry epicritic, kinesthetic, and conscious proprioceptive information from lower body; TRACTS={fasciculus gracilis tract}
    • CBN: Centrobasalis Nucleus,LPC.SC.IZ.CBS - Unconscious proprioception to CR (Upper extremity, relay motor feedback to CR, major site of termination for dorsal root fibers); TRACTS={}
    • CCN: Central Cervical Nucleus,LPC.SC.IZ.CCV - Coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills (Receive neck and vestibular input and project to CR and vestibular nuclei); TRACTS={rostral spinocerebellar tract; spinoolivary tract; spinovestibular tract}
    • IMM: Intermediomedial Nucleus,LPC.SC.IZ.IMM - Visceral sensory (ventral spinocerebellar tract; to vermis); TRACTS={spinomedulloreticular tract; spinopontoreticular tract; ventral spinocerebellar tract}
    • LCN: Lateral Cervical Nucleus,LPC.SC.LH.LCV - Relay Low-threshold Mechanoreceptors to CR (From Lamina V); TRACTS={spinocervical tract}
    • CLN: Clarke Nucleus,LPC.SC.PH.CL - Unconscious Proprioception (To CR); TRACTS={dorsal spinocerebellar tract}
  • Spinal Medial Motor Nuclei (axial muscles motor neurons)
    • ONN: Onuf's Nucleus,LPC.SC.VH.ONF - Maintenance of urination and defecation, muscular contraction during orgasm (From Barrington's Nucleus); TRACTS={}
    • PHN: Phrenic Nucleus,LPC.SC.VH.PHR - Innervation of diaphragm (Projections from Nucleus Solitarius); TRACTS={solitariospinal inpiratory tract}
    • PMN: Posteromedial Nucleus,LPC.SC.VH.PM - Innervation of trunk muscles (Upper and lower); TRACTS={lateral corticospinal tract; rubrospinal tract}
    • VMN: Ventromedial Nucleus,LPC.SC.VH.VM - Innervation of trunk muscles (Upper and lower); TRACTS={anterior corticospinal tract; pontine reticulospinal tract; solitariospinal expiratory tract}
  • Spinal Pain and Temperature
    • DCN: Dorsal Commissural Nucleus,LAC.SC.CC.DCN - Relay of sensory information from pelvic viscera (Includes nociception); TRACTS={}
    • LSN: Lateral Spinal Nucleus,LAC.SC.LH.LSN - Integrate autonomic and homeostatic functions (Projects to HT and lateral globus pallidus; integrative nucleus for autonomic and homeostatic functions, and related motivational and affective responses to autonomic function); TRACTS={spinohypothalamic tract; spinosolitary tract}
    • LMG: Lower Marginal Nucleus,LPC.SC.PH.LMG - Relay information related to pain and temperature sensation - T7-T12,L1-L5,S1-S5,CX; TRACTS={lateral spinothalamic tract; spinomesencephalic tract}
    • LSG: Lower Substantia Gelatinosa,LPC.SC.PH.LSG - Relay for C-fibers of slowly conducting, poorly localized pain sensation - T7-T12,L1-L5,S1-S5,CX; TRACTS={anterior spinothalamic tract; lateral spinothalamic tract}
    • NPR: Proprius Nucleus,LPC.SC.PH.NP - Relay light touch, pain and temperature information (With Clarke's Nucleus sensing fine touch and proprioception); TRACTS={spinocervical tract; spinoolivary tract; spinotectal tract}
    • UMG: Upper Marginal Nucleus,LPC.SC.PH.UMG - Relay information related to pain and temperature sensation - C1-C8,T1-T6; TRACTS={lateral spinothalamic tract; spinomesencephalic tract}
    • USG: Upper Substantia Gelatinosa,LPC.SC.PH.USG - Relay for C-fibers of slowly conducting, poorly localized pain sensation - C1-C8,T1-T6; TRACTS={anterior spinothalamic tract; lateral spinothalamic tract}

Peripheral Brain Connectivity

LINKED SENSORY REGIONS

(generated)

  • Forebrain Diencephalon
    • Hypothalamus,FD.HT
    • Thalamus,FD.TH
      • Sensory Thalamus,FD.TH.SR: Relay primary or secondary assending sensory streams
      • Cognitive Thalamus,FD.TH.CR: Relay cognitive activity
        • Mediodorsal Nucleus of Thalamus,FD.TH.MD: Attention, planning, organization, abstract thinking, multi-tasking, and active memory; TRACTS={lateral spinothalamic tract}
  • Hindbrain Myelencephalon
    • Myelencephalic Sensory Nuclei,HL.SN
    • Medullary Reticular Formation,HL.RF
      • Medullary Reticular Formation, Medial Column,HL.RF.MED
  • Hindbrain Metencephalon
    • Metencephalic Sensory Nuclei,HT.SN
    • Cerebellar Complex,LLC.HT.CRC
      • Cerebellum,LLC.HT.CR: Motor coordination; TRACTS={cuneocerebellar tract; dorsal spinocerebellar tract; rostral spinocerebellar tract; ventral spinocerebellar tract}
    • Pontine Reticular Formation,HT.RF
      • Pontine Reticular Formation, Medial Column,HT.RF.MED; TRACTS={spinopontoreticular tract}
      • Pontine Reticular Formation, Lateral Column,HT.RF.LAT
        • Parabrachial Nucleus,LPC.HT.PRF.PB: Source of short-latency nociceptive input; sense of physiological condition of body well-being or interoception; TRACTS={spinosolitary tract}
    • Vestibular Nuclei,LPC.HT.VBN: Equilibrium, Postural Reflexes
  • Midbrain Mesencephalon
    • Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon,MM.REF
      • Visual Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon,MM.REF.VIS
        • Superior Colliculus,MM.SC: Direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric space, induce saccadic eye movement
    • Periaqueductal Gray Matter,LMC.MM.PAG: Descending modulation of pain and in defensive behaviour; TRACTS={spinocervical tract; spinomesencephalic tract}

LINKED MOTOR REGIONS

(generated)

  • Forebrain Diencephalon
    • Hypothalamus,FD.HT
      • Anterior Hypothalamus Area,LAC.FD.HT.AHT
  • Hindbrain Myelencephalon
  • Hindbrain Metencephalon
  • Midbrain Mesencephalon
    • Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon,MM.REF
      • Visual Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon,MM.REF.VIS
        • Superior Colliculus,MM.SC: Direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric space, induce saccadic eye movement
    • Red Nucleus,LLC.MM.RD: Motor coordination; TRACTS={rubrospinal tract}
  • Cerebral Cortex
    • Anterior Lobe,NC.LOBE.ANT
      • Motor Cortex,NMA.NC.MC: Execution of required voluntary movements; TRACTS={corticobulbar tract; lateral corticospinal tract}
      • Premotor Cortex,NC.PMC: Selection of appropriate motor plans for voluntary movements
      • Supplementary Motor Cortex,NMA.NC.SMC: Process sequences of movements and coordinate bilateral movements

LINKED RECIPROCAL REGIONS

(generated)

  • Midbrain Mesencephalon
    • Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon,MM.REF
      • Visual Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon,MM.REF.VIS
        • Superior Colliculus,MM.SC: Direct behavioral responses toward specific points in egocentric space, induce saccadic eye movement

LINKED GANGLIA

(generated)

  • Peripheral Nervous System
    • Sensory Ganglia,PNS.SG
      • Sensory Exteroception Ganglia,PN.SG.SE
        • Geniculate Ganglion,LPC.PN.SG.GNG: Trophic support for survival; TRACTS={anterior trigeminothalamic tract}
        • Trigeminal Ganglion,LPC.PN.SG.TRG: Integration of external auditory meatus (auricular branch), cranial meninges (meningeal branch), and external surface of tympanic membrane; TRACTS={anterior trigeminothalamic tract; dorsal trigeminal tract}
        • Jugular Ganglion,LPC.PN.SG.JUG: Integration of external auditory meatus (auricular branch), cranial meninges (meningeal branch), and external surface of tympanic membrane; TRACTS={anterior trigeminothalamic tract}
      • Sensory Interoception Ganglia,PN.SG.SI
      • Dorsal Root Ganglia,LPC.PN.SG.DRG: Integration of afferent signaling from somatic viscera
        • Upper Dorsal Root Ganglion,LPC.PN.SG.UDRG: Integration of afferent signaling from cervical and upper thoracic somatic and viscera; TRACTS={anterior spinothalamic tract; cuneocerebellar tract; dorsal spinocerebellar tract; fasciculus cuneatus tract; lateral spinothalamic tract; rostral spinocerebellar tract; spinohypothalamic tract; spinomedulloreticular tract; spinomesencephalic tract; spinoolivary tract; spinopontoreticular tract; spinosolitary tract; spinotectal tract; spinovestibular tract; ventral spinocerebellar tract}
        • Lower Dorsal Root Ganglion,LPC.PN.SG.LDRG: Integration of afferent signaling from lower thoracic and lumbosacral somatic and viscera; TRACTS={anterior spinothalamic tract; dorsal spinocerebellar tract; fasciculus gracilis tract; spinocervical tract; spinohypothalamic tract; spinomedulloreticular tract; spinomesencephalic tract; spinopontoreticular tract; spinosolitary tract; ventral spinocerebellar tract}