OverallMindMaps

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Mind Maps

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Classical Divisions

Classical biological divisions are:

  • anatomically is divided into
    • central nervous system (CNS)
      • brain
      • spinal cord
    • peripheral nervous system (PNS) - convey neural messages from sense organs and sensory receptors to CNS and from CNS to muscles and glands
      • cranial nerves - nerves emerging from brain
      • spinal nerves - nerves emerging from spinal cord
  • functionally is divided into
    • somatic nervous system
      • conveying and processing conscious and unconscious sensory (afferent) information, vision, pain, touch, unconscious muscle sense from head, body wall, and extremities to CNS
      • motor (efferent) control of voluntary (striated) muscles
    • autonomic (visceral) nervous system
      • conveying and processing sensory input from visceral organs
      • motor control of involuntary (smooth) and cardiac musculature, and of glands of viscera

organization%20of%20nervous%20system.jpg

Brain Development and Embryo Vesicles

See full process at:

In the embryon CNS/brain is represented by 5 vesicles:

  • forebrain = prosencephalon
    • telencephalon
    • diencephalon
  • midbrain = mesencephalon
  • hindbrain = rhombencephalon
    • metencephalon
    • myelencephalon

After further development vesicles are transformed to below brain structures:

  • cerebrum
    • telencephalon (FT=Forebrain Telencephalon) -> cerebral hemispheres
      • cerebral cortex (gray matter)
        • anterior cortex
          • frontal lobe
        • posterior cortex
          • parietal lobe
          • occipital lobe
          • temporal lobe
          • central lobe (insula),
        • limbic lobe
      • underlying white matter
      • basal ganglia
        • corpus striatum (gray matter)
          • caudate nucleus
          • lenticular nucleus
            • putamen
            • globus pallidus (pallidum)
      • corpus callosum (required for left/right cooperation/coordination, not a source of intelligence)
      • anterior commissure (required for left/right cooperation/coordination, not a source of intelligence)
      • hippocampal formation
      • amygdala
    • diencephalon (FD=Forebrain Diencephalon) -> diencephalon
      • epithalamus
        • pineal gland (modified photoreceptor cells, day/night cycle, respond to circadian differences in sympathetic nervous system activity, critical trigger for hibernation and sexual maturation)
        • habenular nuclei (pathway by which limbic structures may influence brain stem/reticular formation function)
      • thalamus (dorsal thalamus)
      • hypothalamus
        • mamillary bodies
        • hypophysis (pituitary gland)
      • ventral thalamus (subthalamus)
  • brainstem
    • mesencephalon (MM=Midbrain Mesencephalon) -> midbrain
    • metencephalon (HP=Hindbrain Pons, including cerebellum) -> pons
    • myelencephalon (HM=Hindbrain Medulla) -> medulla
  • cerebellum
    • metencephalon (HP=Hindbrain Pons, including cerebellum) -> cerebellum

Adult Sources of Neurons:

Target

(generated)

  • Human Sensors (aHumanSensors) -> BrainAreaTSA
    • Eye (TARGET.TSA.EYE) (TARGET.TSA.EYE, targetsensor)
      • Eye sensory data (eye-sensory)
        • Eye - rods and cones (eye-edge-output)
        • Eye - somatic receptors (eye-somatic)
        • Eye - visceral receptors (eye-visceral)
      • Eye rotation motor muscles (eye-rotation-motor)
        • Eye - inferior oblique muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-major-inferior-oblique)
        • Eye - inferior rectus muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-major-inferior-rectus)
        • Eye - medial rectus muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-major-medial-rectus)
        • Eye - superior rectus muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-major-superior-rectus)
        • Eye - levator palpebrae superioris muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-major-levator-palpebrae)
        • Eye - superior oblique muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-minor)
        • Eye - lateral rectus muscle (eye-muscle-rotate-vestibular)
      • Eye pupil and accomodation motor muscles (eye-pupil-motor)
        • Eye - ciliary muscle - sympathetic (eye-muscle-curvature-sympathetic)
        • Eye - ciliary muscle - parasympathetic (eye-muscle-curvature-parasympathetic)
        • Eye - iris sphincter muscle (eye-muscle-pupil-close)
        • Eye - iris dilator muscle (eye-muscle-pupil-open)
      • Eyelid motor muscles (eyelid-motor)
        • Eye - orbicularis oculi muscle:temporal (eye-muscle-close-conscious-orbital)
        • Eye - orbicularis oculi muscle:zygomatic (eye-muscle-close-conscious-lacrimal)
        • Eye - orbicularis oculi muscle:palpebrale (eye-muscle-close-involuntary-palpebrale)
        • Eye - superior tarsal muscle (eye-muscle-superior-tarsal)
        • Eye - inferior tarsal muscle (eye-muscle-inferior-tarsal)
        • Eye - orbitalis muscle (eye-orbitalis-muscle)
      • Eye glands (eye-glands)
        • Eye - lacrimal gland (eye-tears-gland)
        • Eye - lacrimal gland and conjunctiva receptors (eye-lacrimal-gland-conjunctiva-receptors)
    • Ear (TARGET.TSA.EAR) (TARGET.TSA.EAR, targetsensor)
      • Ear sound sensory data (ear-sensory-sound-data)
        • Ear - inner hair cells (ear-inner-hair-cells)
        • Ear - outer hair cells feedback (ear-outer-hair-cells-feedback)
        • Ear - somatic receptors (ear-somatic)
        • Ear - outer ear skin (ear-external-skin)
        • Ear - acoustic meatus skin (ear-acoustic-meatus-skin)
        • Ear - visceral receptors (ear-visceral)
        • Ear - timpanic cavity (ear-timpanic-cavity)
      • Ear vestibular sensory data (ear-sensory-vestibular-data)
        • Ear - semicircular canals, cristae (ear-semicircular-canals)
        • Ear - utricle, maculae (ear-utricle)
        • Ear - saccule, maculae (ear-saccule)
      • Ear sound sensory control (ear-sensory-control)
        • Ear - outer hair cells (ear-outer-hair-cells)
        • Ear - stapedius muscle (ear-stapedius)
        • Ear - tympanic membrane muscle (ear-tensor-tympani-muscle)
      • Ear move muscles (ear-move)
        • Ear - anterior auricular muscle (ear-anterior-auricular-muscle)
        • Ear - posterior auricular muscle (ear-posterior-auricular-muscle)
        • Ear - superior auricular muscle (ear-superior-auricular-muscle)
        • Ear - oblique muscle of auricle (ear-oblique-auricular-muscle)
        • Ear - temporoparietalis muscle (ear-temporoparietalis-muscle)
    • Nose (TARGET.TSA.NOSE) (TARGET.TSA.NOSE, targetsensor)
      • Nose sensory data (nose-sensory-data)
        • Nose - volatile (nose-volatile)
        • Nose - nonvolatile (nose-nonvolatile)
        • Nose - proprioceptors (nose-proprioceptors)
        • Nose - touch receptors (nose-somatic)
        • Nose - visceral nodose receptors (nose-visceral-vagus)
        • Nose - visceral pharynx receptors (nose-visceral-pharynx)
      • Ear sensory control (nose-sensory-control)
        • Nose - nasal glands (nose-nasal-glands)
      • Nose move muscles (nose-muscles)
        • Nose - depressor septi nasi muscle (nose-depressor-septi-nasi)
        • Nose - levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle (nose-levator-labii-superioris-alaeque-nasi)
        • Nose - nasalis muscle (nose-nasalis)
        • Nose - salpingopharyngeus muscle (nose-salpingopharyngeus)
  • Human Effectors (aHumanEffectors) -> BrainAreaTEA
    • Heart (TARGET.TEA.HEART) (TARGET.TEA.HEART, targeteffector)
      • Heart - NE receptors of atrium muscles (heart-symp-control)
      • Heart - upper cardiac muscle (heart-cardiac-upper-muscle)
      • Heart - lower cardiac muscle, middle (heart-cardiac-lower-muscle-middle)
      • Heart - lower cardiac muscle, stellar (heart-cardiac-lower-muscle-stellar)
      • Heart - ACh receptors of atrium muscles (heart-psymp-control)
      • Heart - baroreceptors in aorta (heart-aorta-baroreceptors)
      • Heart - baroreceptors in carotid artery (heart-carotid-baroreceptors)
      • Heart - visceral receptors (heart-visceral)
    • Immunity glands and meninges (TARGET.TEA.PROTECTOR) (TARGET.TEA.PROTECTOR, targeteffector)
      • Protector sensory data (protector-sensory-data)
        • Protector - cranial meninges (cranial-meninges)
        • Protector - tentorium cerebelli dura mater visceral receptors (tentorium-cerebelli-dura-matter)
      • Protector tonsils (protector-tonsils)
        • Protector - palatine tonsil (palatine-tonsil)
        • Protector - lingual tonsil (lingual-tonsil)
        • Protector - pharyngeal tonsils (pharyngeal-tonsils)
      • Protector mucous glands (protector-mucous-glands)
        • Protector - hard palate mucous gland (hard-palate-mucosal-gland)
        • Protector - soft palate mucous gland (soft-palate-mucosal-gland)
    • Mouth feeder (TARGET.TEA.FEEDER) (TARGET.TEA.FEEDER, targeteffector)
      • Feeder salivatory glands (feeder-salivation)
        • Feeder - parotid gland (parotid-gland)
        • Feeder - submandibular gland (submandibular-gland)
        • Feeder - sublingual gland (sublingual-gland)
      • Feeder taste sensation (mouth-taste-sensation)
        • Feeder - tongue gustatory hair cell (tongue-hair-cell)
        • Feeder - epiglottis (epiglottis-taste-buds)
        • Feeder - soft palate sparse taste receptors (soft-palate-sparse-taste-receptors)
      • Feeder tongue muscles (tongue-muscles)
        • Feeder - genioglossus muscle (genioglossus-muscle)
        • Feeder - hyoglossus muscle (hyoglossus-muscle)
        • Feeder - styloglossus muscle (styloglossus-muscle)
        • Feeder - chondroglossus muscle (chondroglossus-muscle)
        • Feeder - palatoglossus muscle (palatoglossus-muscle)
        • Feeder - transverse muscle of tongue (transverse-tongue-muscle)
        • Feeder - vertical muscle of tongue (vertical-tongue-muscle)
        • Feeder - inferior longitudinal muscle of tongue (tongue-inferior-longitudinal-muscle)
        • Feeder - stylohyoid muscle (stylohyoid-muscle)
        • Feeder - superior longitudinal muscle of tongue (superior-longitudinal-muscle-tongue)
      • Feeder swallowing muscles and helper components (swallowing-muscles)
        • Feeder - digastric muscle, facial (digastric-muscle-facial)
        • Feeder - digastric muscle, trigeminal (digastric-muscle-trigeminal)
        • Feeder - geniohyoid muscle (geniohyoid-muscle)
        • Feeder - mylohyoid muscle (mylohyoid-muscle)
        • Feeder - inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (inferior-pharyngeal-constrictor-muscle)
        • Feeder - middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle (middle-pharyngeal-constrictor-muscle)
        • Feeder - superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (superior-pharyngeal-constrictor-muscle)
        • Feeder - uvula receptors (uvula-receptors)
        • Feeder - musculus uvulae muscle (uvulae-muscle)
        • Feeder - levator veli palatini muscle (levator-veli-palatini-muscle)
        • Feeder - tensor veli palatini muscle (tensor-veli-palatini-muscle)
        • Feeder - buccinator muscle (buccinator-muscle)
      • Feeder chewing muscles (chewing-muscles)
        • Feeder - teeth (teeth)
        • Feeder - masseter muscle (masticatory-masseter-muscle)
        • Feeder - lateral pterygoid muscle (masticatory-lateral-pterygoid-muscle)
        • Feeder - medial pterygoid muscle (masticatory-medial-pterygoid-muscle)
        • Feeder - temporal muscle (masticatory-temporal-muscle)
        • Feeder - proprioception receptors of masticatory muscles (masticatory-unconscious-muscle-spindles)
    • Mouth speaker (TARGET.TEA.SPEAKER) (TARGET.TEA.SPEAKER, targeteffector)
      • Speaker sensory data (speaker-sensory-data)
        • Speaker - palatine tonsil receptors (palatine-tonsil-receptors)
      • Speaker phonatory muscles (speaker-phonatory-muscles)
        • Speaker - lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (lateral-cricoarytenoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - arytenoid muscle (arytenoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - cricothyroid muscle (cricothyroid-muscle)
        • Speaker - thyroarytenoid muscle (thyroarytenoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - oblique arytenoid muscle (oblique-arytenoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (posterior-cricoarytenoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - thyroepiglottic muscle (thyroepiglottic-muscle)
        • Speaker - aryepiglottic muscle (aryepiglottic-muscle)
      • Speaker respiratory larynx muscles (speaker-respiratory-muscles)
        • Speaker - thyrohyoid muscle (larynx-thyrohyoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - omohyoid muscle (omohyoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - palatopharyngeus muscle (palatopharyngeus-muscle)
        • Speaker - sternohyoid muscle (sternohyoid-muscle)
        • Speaker - sternothyroid muscle (sternothyroid-muscle)
        • Speaker - levator muscle of thyroid gland (thyroid-gland-levator-muscle)
    • Face (TARGET.TEA.FACE) (TARGET.TEA.FACE, targeteffector)
      • Face sensory data (face-sensory-data)
        • Face - face skin (face-skin)
        • Face - parotid skin (face-parotid-skin)
      • Face scalp muscles (face-scalp-muscles)
        • Face - corrugator supercilii muscle (face-corrugator-supercilii-muscle)
        • Face - depressor supercilii muscle (face-depressor-supercilii-muscle)
        • Face - frontalis muscle (face-frontalis-muscle)
        • Face - occipitalis muscle (face-occipitalis-muscle)
      • Face upper lip muscles (face-upper-lip-muscles)
        • Face - levator labii superioris muscle (face-levator-labii-superioris-muscle)
        • Face - procerus muscle (face-procerus)
        • Face - zygomaticus minor muscle (zygomaticus-minor-muscle)
      • Face lower lip muscles (face-lower-lip-muscles)
        • Face - platysma muscle (face-platysma-muscle)
        • Face - depressor labii inferioris muscle (depressor-labii-inferioris-muscle)
        • Face - risorius muscle (risorius-muscle)
        • Face - mentalis muscle (mentalis-muscle)
        • Face - transverse muscle of the chin (transverse-chin-muscle)
      • Face surround and mouth corners muscles (face-surround-corner-muscles)
        • Face - orbicularis oris muscle (orbicularis-oris-muscle)
        • Face - zygomaticus major muscle, buccal (zygomaticus-major-muscle-buccal)
        • Face - zygomaticus major muscle, proper (zygomaticus-major-muscle-proper)
        • Face - levator anguli oris muscle (levator-anguli-oris-muscle)
        • Face - depressor anguli oris muscle (depressor-anguli-oris-muscle)
    • Neck (TARGET.TEA.NECK) (TARGET.TEA.NECK, targeteffector)
      • Neck sensory data (neck-sensory-data)
        • Neck - cutaneous receptors of low neck (neck-low-cutaneous-receptors)
      • Neck flexors (neck-flexors)
        • Neck - scalenus anterior muscle (neck-scalenus-anterior)
        • Neck - scalenus medius muscle (neck-scalenus-medius)
        • Neck - scalenus posterior muscle (neck-scalenus-posterior)
        • Neck - longus capitis muscle (neck-longus-capitis)
        • Neck - longus colli muscle (neck-longus-colli)
        • Neck - rectus capitis anterior muscle (neck-rectus-capitis-anterior)
        • Neck - rectus capitis lateralis muscle (neck-rectus-capitis-lateralis)
        • Neck - sternocleidomastoid muscle (neck-sternocleidomastoid)
      • Neck extensors (neck-extensors)
        • Neck - obliquus capitis inferior muscle (neck-obliquus-capitis-inferior-muscle)
        • Neck - obliquus capitis superior muscle (neck-obliquus-capitis-superior-muscle)
        • Neck - rectus capitis posterior major muscle (neck-rectus-capitis-posterior-major-muscle)
        • Neck - rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (neck-rectus-capitis-posterior-minor-muscle)
        • Neck - semispinalis capitis (neck-semispinalis-capitis)
        • Neck - splenius capitis muscle (neck-splenius-capitis)
        • Neck - splenius cervicis muscle (neck-splenius-cervicis)
    • Liver (TARGET.TEA.LIVER) (TARGET.TEA.LIVER, targeteffector)
      • Liver sensory data (liver-sensory-data)
        • Liver - glucose and osmoreceptors (glucose-and-osmoreceptors)
        • Liver - visceral receptors (visceral-receptors)
      • Liver - abdominal alimentary tract glands (glands)
    • Stomach (TARGET.TEA.STOMACH) (TARGET.TEA.STOMACH, targeteffector)
      • Stomach sensory data (stomach-sensory-data)
        • Stomach - stomach nutrition sensor (stomach-nutrition-sensor)
      • Stomach gastrointestinal tract (stomach-gastrointestinal-tract)
        • Stomach - outer longitudinal and inner circular smooth muscles (stomach-wall)
        • Stomach - mucosal gastric glands (stomach-mucosal-gastric-glands)
        • Stomach - enzyme glands (stomach)
        • Stomach - small intestine (small-intestine)
        • Stomach - duodentum (duodentum)
        • Stomach - colon (colon)
      • Stomach extractors (stomach-extractors)
        • Stomach - spleen (spleen)
        • Stomach - kidney (kidney)
    • Lung (TARGET.TEA.LUNG) (TARGET.TEA.LUNG, targeteffector)
      • Lung sensory data (lung-sensory-data)
        • Lung - pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (pulmonary-neuroepithelial-bodies)
        • Lung - pericardium and pleura receptors (pericardium-pleura-receptors)
        • Lung - pulmonary stretch receptors (pulmonary-stretch-receptors)
      • Lung visceral activity (lung-visceral-activity)
        • Lung - glands of trachea, lungs, and bronchi (visceral-glands)
        • Lung - smooth muscles of trachea and bronchial tree (smooth-muscles)
      • Lung breath muscles (lung-breath-muscles)
        • Lung - thoracic diaphragm (thoracic-diaphragm)
        • Lung - stylopharyngeus muscle (stylopharyngeus-muscle)
    • Hand (TARGET.TEA.HAND) (TARGET.TEA.HAND, targeteffector)
      • Hand somatic sensory data (hand-somatic-sensory)
        • Hand - hand somatic receptors (hand-somatic-receptors)
      • Hand shoulder (hand-shoulder)
        • Hand shoulder flexors (hand-shoulder-flexors)
          • Hand - infraspinatus muscle (infraspinatus-muscle)
          • Hand - supraspinatus muscle (supraspinatus-muscle)
          • Hand - deltoid muscle, anterior (anterior-deltoid-muscle)
          • Hand - coracobrachialis muscle (coracobrachialis-muscle)
          • Hand - levator claviculae muscle (levator-claviculae-muscle)
          • Hand - levator scapulae muscle, roots (levator-scapulae-muscle-roots)
          • Hand - levator scapulae muscle, scapular (levator-scapulae-muscle-scapular)
          • Hand - pectoralis major muscle (pectoralis-major-muscle)
          • Hand - rhomboid major muscle (rhomboid-major-muscle)
          • Hand - rhomboid minor muscle (rhomboid-minor-muscle)
          • Hand - serratus anterior muscle (serratus-anterior-muscle)
          • Hand - sternalis muscle (sternalis-muscle)
        • Hand shoulder extensors (hand-shoulder-extensors)
          • Hand - subscapularis muscle, lower (subscapularis-muscle-lower)
          • Hand - subscapularis muscle, upper (subscapularis-muscle-upper)
          • Hand - teres major muscle (shoulder-teres-major-muscle)
          • Hand - latissimus dorsi muscle (shoulder-latissimus-dorsi-muscle)
          • Hand - deltoid muscle, lateral and posterior (posteriolateral-deltoid-muscle)
          • Hand - pectoralis minor muscle (pectoralis-minor-muscle)
          • Hand - subclavius muscle (subclavius-muscle)
          • Hand - trapezius muscle (trapezius-muscle)
      • Hand elbow (hand-elbow)
        • Hand elbow flexors (hand-elbow-flexors)
          • Hand - biceps muscle (biceps-muscle)
          • Hand - brachialis muscle (brachialis-muscle)
          • Hand - pronator quadratus muscle (pronator-quadratus-muscle)
          • Hand - pronator teres muscle (pronator-teres-muscle)
        • Hand elbow extensors (hand-elbow-extensors)
          • Hand - teres minor muscle (teres-minor-muscle)
          • Hand - triceps brachii muscle, axillary (triceps-brachii-muscle-axillary)
          • Hand - triceps brachii muscle, radial (triceps-brachii-muscle-radial)
          • Hand - articularis cubiti muscle (articularis-cubiti-muscle)
          • Hand - supinator muscle (supinator-muscle)
          • Hand - anconeus muscle (anconeus-muscle)
          • Hand - brachioradialis muscle (brachioradialis-muscle)
      • Hand wrist (hand-wrist)
        • Hand wrist flexors (hand-wrist-flexors)
          • Hand - flexor carpi radialis muscle (flexor-carpi-radialis-muscle)
          • Hand - flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (flexor-carpi-ulnaris-muscle)
          • Hand - flexor digitorum profundus muscle, interosseous (flexor-digitorum-profundus-muscle-interosseous)
          • Hand - palmaris longus muscle (palmaris-longus-muscle)
          • Hand - palmaris brevis muscle (palmaris-brevis-muscle)
        • Hand wrist extensors (hand-wrist-extensors)
          • Hand - extensor digiti minimi muscle (extensor-digiti-minimi-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (extensor-carpi-radialis-brevis-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (extensor-carpi-radialis-longus-muscle)
      • Hand fingers (hand-fingers)
        • Hand fingers flexors (hand-fingers-flexors)
          • Hand - flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor-pollicis-longus-muscle)
          • Hand - flexor pollicis brevis muscle, median (flexor-pollicis-brevis-muscle)
          • Hand - flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (flexor-digitorum-superficialis-muscle)
          • Hand - abductor digiti minimi muscle of hand (abductor-digiti-minimi-muscle)
          • Hand - abductor pollicis brevis muscle (abductor-pollicis-brevis-muscle)
          • Hand - adductor pollicis muscle (adductor-pollicis-muscle)
          • Hand - dorsal interossei muscles of the hand (dorsal-interossei-muscle-hand)
          • Hand - flexor digiti minimi brevis of hand (flexor-digiti-minimi-brevis-muscle-hand)
          • Hand - flexor digitorum profundus muscle, ulnar (flexor-digitorum-profundus-muscle-ulnar)
          • Hand - flexor pollicis brevis muscle, ulnar (flexor-pollicis-brevis-muscle-ulnar)
          • Hand - lumbricals of the hand muscles, median (lumbricals-hand-muscles-median)
          • Hand - lumbricals of the hand muscles, ulnar (lumbricals-hand-muscles-ulnar)
          • Hand - opponens digiti minimi muscle (opponens-digiti-minimi-muscles)
          • Hand - opponens pollicis muscle (opponens-pollicis-muscle)
          • Hand - palmar interossei muscles (palmar-interossei-muscles)
        • Hand fingers extensors (hand-fingers-extensors)
          • Hand - abductor pollicis longus muscle (abductor-pollicis-longus-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor carpi ulnaris muscle (extensor-carpi-ulnaris-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor digitorum muscle (extensor-digitorum-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor indicis muscle (extensor-indicis-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor pollicis brevis muscle (extensor-pollicis-brevis-muscle)
          • Hand - extensor pollicis longus muscle (extensor-pollicis-longus-muscle)
    • Leg (TARGET.TEA.LEG) (TARGET.TEA.LEG, targeteffector)
      • Leg somatic sensory data (leg-somatic-sensory)
        • Leg - somatic receptors (leg-somatic-receptors)
      • Leg thigh (leg-thigh)
        • Leg thigh flexors (leg-thigh-flexors)
          • Leg - piriformis muscle (piriformis-muscle)
          • Leg - adductor brevis muscle (leg-adductor-brevis-muscle)
          • Leg - adductor longus muscle (leg-adductor-longus-muscle)
          • Leg - adductor magnus muscle, obturator (leg-adductor-magnus-muscle-obturator)
          • Leg - adductor magnus muscle, tibial (leg-adductor-magnus-muscle-tibial)
          • Leg - adductor minimus muscle, obturator (leg-adductor-minimus-muscle-obturator)
          • Leg - adductor minimus muscle, tibial (leg-adductor-minimus-muscle-tibial)
          • Leg - biceps femoris muscle, tibial (leg-biceps-femoris-muscle-tibial)
          • Leg - gemellus inferior muscle (leg-gemellus-inferior-muscle)
          • Leg - gemellus superior muscle (leg-gemellus-superior-muscle)
          • Leg - gluteus medius muscle (leg-gluteus-medius-muscle)
          • Leg - gluteus minimus muscle (leg-gluteus-minimus-muscle)
          • Leg - gracilis muscle (leg-gracilis-muscle)
          • Leg - iliacus muscle (leg-iliacus-muscle)
          • Leg - obturator externus muscle (leg-obturator-externus-muscle)
          • Leg - obturator internus muscle (leg-obturator-internus-muscle)
          • Leg - pectineus muscle, femoral (leg-pectineus-muscle-femoral)
          • Leg - pectineus muscle, obturator (leg-pectineus-muscle-obturator)
          • Leg - psoas major muscle (leg-psoas-major-muscle)
          • Leg - psoas minor muscle (leg-psoas-minor-muscle)
          • Leg - quadratus femoris muscle (leg-quadratus-femoris-muscle)
          • Leg - sartorius muscle (leg-sartorius-muscle)
          • Leg - tensor fasciae latae muscle (leg-tensor-fasciae-latae-muscle)
        • Leg thigh extensors (leg-thigh-extensors)
          • Leg - gluteus maximus muscle (gluteus-maximus-muscle)
      • Leg knee (leg-knee)
        • Leg knee flexors (leg-knee-flexors)
          • Leg - gastrocnemius muscle (gastrocnemius-muscle)
          • Leg - popliteus muscle (popliteus-muscle)
          • Leg - biceps femoris muscle, peroneal (leg-biceps-femoris-muscle-peroneal)
          • Leg - semimembranosus muscle (leg-semimembranosus-muscle)
          • Leg - semitendinosus muscle (leg-semitendinosus-muscle)
        • Leg knee extensors (leg-knee-extensors)
          • Leg - articularis genu muscle (leg-articularis-genu-muscle)
          • Leg - obliquus genu muscle (leg-obliquus-genu-muscle)
          • Leg - rectus femoris muscle (leg-rectus-femoris-muscle)
          • Leg - vastus intermedius muscle (leg-vastus-intermedius-muscle)
          • Leg - vastus lateralis muscle (leg-vastus-lateralis-muscle)
          • Leg - vastus medialis muscle (leg-vastus-medialis-muscle)
      • Leg foot (leg-foot)
        • Leg foot flexors (leg-foot-flexors)
          • Leg - tibialis posterior muscle (tibialis-posterior-muscle)
          • Leg - abductor hallucis muscle (leg-abductor-hallucis-muscle)
          • Leg - plantaris muscle (plantaris-muscle)
          • Leg - quadratus plantae muscle (leg-quadratus-plantae-muscle)
          • Leg - adductor hallucis muscle (leg-adductor-hallucis-muscle)
          • Leg - accessory soleus muscle (leg-accessory-soleus-muscle)
          • Leg - fibularis brevis muscle (leg-fibularis-brevis-muscle)
          • Leg - fibularis longus muscle (leg-fibularis-longus-muscle)
          • Leg - soleus muscle (leg-soleus-muscle)
        • Leg foot extensors (leg-foot-extensors)
          • Leg - fibularis tertius muscle (fibularis-tertius-muscle)
          • Leg - tibialis anterior muscle (tibialis-anterior-muscle)
          • Leg - extensor hallucis brevis muscle (leg-extensor-hallucis-brevis-muscle)
      • Leg fingers (leg-fingers)
        • Leg fingers flexors (leg-fingers-flexors)
          • Leg - flexor digitorum longus muscle (flexor-longus-digitorum-muscle)
          • Leg - flexor hallucis longus muscle (flexor-longus-hallucis-muscle)
          • Leg - abductor digiti minimi muscle of foot (leg-abductor-digiti-minimi-muscle)
          • Leg - flexor digitorum brevis muscle (leg-flexor-digitorum-brevis-muscle)
          • Leg - lumbrical muscle of foot, lateral (leg-lumbrical-muscle-lateral)
          • Leg - lumbrical muscle of foot, medial (leg-lumbrical-muscle-medial)
          • Leg - flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle of foot (leg-flexor-digiti-minimi-brevis-muscle)
          • Leg - flexor hallucis brevis muscle (leg-flexor-hallucis-brevis-muscle)
          • Leg - dorsal interossei muscles of the foot (leg-dorsal-interossei-muscles)
          • Leg - plantar interossei muscles (leg-plantar-interossei-muscles)
        • Leg fingers extensors (leg-fingers-extensors)
          • Leg - extensor digitorum brevis muscle (extensor-digitorum-brevis-muscle)
          • Leg - extensor digitorum longus muscle (extensor-digitorum-longus-muscle)
          • Leg - extensor hallucis longus muscle (extensor-hallucis-longus-muscle)
    • Trunk (TARGET.TEA.TRUNK) (TARGET.TEA.TRUNK, targeteffector)
      • Trunk sensory data (trunk-sensory-data)
        • Trunk - upper somatic receptors (trunk-upper-somatic-receptors)
        • Trunk - lower somatic receptors (trunk-lower-somatic-receptors)
      • Trunk back (trunk-back)
        • Trunk back flexors (trunk-back-flexors)
          • Trunk - iliocostalis muscle (trunk-iliocostalis-muscle)
          • Trunk - rotatores muscles (trunk-rotatores-muscles)
          • Trunk - spinalis muscle (trunk-spinalis-muscle)
        • Trunk back extensors (trunk-back-extensors)
          • Trunk - semispinalis dorsi (thoracis) (trunk-semispinalis-dorsi-thoracis)
          • Trunk - interspinales muscles (trunk-interspinales-muscles)
          • Trunk - intertransversarii muscle (trunk-intertransversarii-muscle)
          • Trunk - levatores costarum muscles (trunk-levatores-costarum-muscles)
          • Trunk - longissimus muscle (trunk-longissimus-muscle)
          • Trunk - multifidus muscle (trunk-multifidus-muscle)
          • Trunk - quadratus lumborum muscle (trunk-quadratus-lumborum-muscle)
          • Trunk - semispinalis cervicis (trunk-semispinalis-cervicis-muscle)
      • Trunk chest (trunk-chest)
        • Trunk chest flexors (trunk-chest-flexors)
          • Trunk - external intercostal muscles (trunk-external-intercostal-muscles)
          • Trunk - serratus posterior superior muscle (trunk-serratus-posterior-superior-muscle)
        • Trunk chest extensors (trunk-chest-extensors)
          • Trunk - subcostalis muscle (trunk-subcostalis-muscle)
          • Trunk - transversus thoracis muscle (trunk-transversus-thoracis-muscle)
          • Trunk - internal intercostal muscles (trunk-internal-intercostal-muscles)
          • Trunk - serratus posterior inferior muscle (trunk-serratus-posterior-inferior-muscle)
      • Trunk abdomen (trunk-abdomen)
        • Trunk abdomen flexors (trunk-abdomen-flexors)
          • Trunk - rectus abdominis muscle (trunk-rectus-abdominis-muscle)
          • Trunk - abdominal internal oblique muscle (trunk-internal-oblique-muscle)
          • Trunk - pyramidalis muscle (trunk-pyramidalis-muscle)
          • Trunk - abdominal external oblique muscle (trunk-abdominal-external-oblique-muscle)
        • Trunk abdomen extensors (trunk-abdomen-extensors)
          • Trunk - transversus abdominis muscle (trunk-transversus-abdominis)
    • Breast (TARGET.TEA.BREAST) (TARGET.TEA.BREAST, targeteffector)
      • Breast - skin receptors (breast-skin-receptors)
      • Breast - nipple smooth muscles (nipple-smooth-muscles)
    • Genitalia (TARGET.TEA.GENITALIA) (TARGET.TEA.GENITALIA, targeteffector)
      • Genitalia - sensations (genitalia-sensory)
        • Genitalia - utetovaginal visceral receptors (utetovaginal-visceral-receptors)
        • Genitalia - visceral sexual receptors (visceral-sexual-receptors)
      • Genitalia - urination and support muscles (genitalia-urination)
        • Genitalia - bulbospongiosus muscle (bulbospongiosus-muscle)
        • Genitalia - pubococcygeus muscle (pubococcygeus-muscle)
      • Genitalia - erection muscles (genitalia-erection)
        • Genitalia - ischiocavernosus muscle (ischiocavernosus-muscle)
        • Genitalia - man erection muscles (genitalia-erection-man)
          • Genitalia - corpus cavernosum penis (corpus-cavernosum-penis)
        • Genitalia - woman erection muscles (genitalia-erection-woman)
          • Genitalia - uterus, sympathetic contractors (uterus-sympathetic)
          • Genitalia - parasympathetic uterus vasodilators (uterus-parasympathetic)
          • Genitalia - vagina, sympathetic vasoconstrictors (vagina-sympathetic)
          • Genitalia - parasympathetic vaginal vasodilators (vagina-parasympathetic)
          • Genitalia - corpus cavernosum clitoridis (corpus-cavernosum-clitoridis)
      • Genitalia - ejaculation muscles and glands, pregnancy and lifecycle support (genitalia-ejaculation)
        • Genitalia - man ejaculation muscles and glands (genitalia-ejaculation-man)
          • Genitalia - cowper gland (cowper-gland)
          • Genitalia - prostate gland (prostate-gland)
          • Genitalia - vas deferens (vas-deferens)
          • Genitalia - deep transverse perineal muscle, penis (deep-transverse-perineal-muscle-penis)
        • Genitalia - woman ejaculation muscles and glands (genitalia-ejaculation-woman)
          • Genitalia - bartholin gland (bartholin-gland)
          • Genitalia - skenes gland (skenes-gland)
          • Genitalia - cervix (cervix-gland)
          • Genitalia - deep transverse perineal muscle, clitoris (deep-transverse-perineal-muscle-clitoris)
      • Genitalia - scrotum muscles (genitalia-scrotum-muscles)
        • Genitalia - cremaster muscle (cremaster-muscle)
        • Genitalia - dartos muscle (dartos-muscle)
    • Ureter (TARGET.TEA.URETER) (TARGET.TEA.URETER, targeteffector)
      • Ureter sensory data (ureter-sensory-data)
        • Ureter - ureter visceral receptors (ureter-visceral-receptors)
      • Ureter autonomic (ureter-autonomic)
        • Ureter - detrusor urinae muscle, parasympathetic (detrusor-urinae-muscle-parasympathetic)
        • Ureter - internal sphincter muscle of urethra, parasympathetic (internal-urethral-sphincter-parasympathetic)
        • Ureter - detrusor urinae muscle, sympathetic (detrusor-urinae-muscle-sympathetic)
        • Ureter - internal sphincter muscle of urethra, sympathetic (internal-urethral-sphincter-sympathetic)
      • Ureter conscious (ureter-conscious)
        • Ureter - external sphincter muscle of female urethra (external-urethral-sphincter-female)
        • Ureter - external sphincter muscle of male urethra (external-urethral-sphincter-male)
    • Rectum (TARGET.TEA.RECTUM) (TARGET.TEA.RECTUM, targeteffector)
      • Rectum sensory data (rectum-sensory-data)
        • Rectum - large intestine visceral receptors (large-intestine-visceral-receptors)
      • Rectum autonomic (rectum-autonomic)
        • Rectum - sphincter ani internus muscle, parasympathetic (sphincter-ani-internus-muscle-parasympathetic)
        • Rectum - sphincter ani internus muscle, sympathetic (sphincter-ani-internus-muscle-sympathetic)
      • Rectum conscious flexors (rectum-conscious-flexors)
        • Rectum - superficial transverse perineal muscle (superficial-transverse-perineal-muscle)
        • Rectum - corrugator cutis ani muscle (corrugator-cutis-ani-muscle)
        • Rectum - sphincter ani externus muscle (sphincter-ani-externus-muscle)
      • Rectum conscious extensors (rectum-conscious-extensors)
        • Rectum - puborectalis muscle (puborectalis-muscle)
        • Rectum - coccygeus muscle (coccygeus-muscle)
        • Rectum - iliococcygeus muscle (iliococcygeus-muscle)
    • Blood vessels (TARGET.TEA.VESSELS) (TARGET.TEA.VESSELS, targeteffector)
      • Head vessels (head-vessels)
        • Vessels - parotid gland vasoconstrictors (parotid-gland-vasoconstrictors)
        • Vessels - submandibular gland vasoconstrictors (submandibular-gland-vasoconstrictors)
        • Vessels - sublingual gland vasoconstrictors (sublingual-gland-vasoconstrictors)
      • Body vessels (body-vessels)
        • Vessels - heart blood vessels (heart-blood-vessels)
        • Vessels - thorathic arterial vasoconstrictors (arterial-thoracic-vasoconstrictors)
        • Vessels - breast blood vessels (breast-blood-vessels)
        • Vessels - stomach blood vessels (stomach-blood-vessels)
        • Vessels - liver blood vessels (liver-blood-vessels)
        • Vessels - renal blood vessels (renal-blood-vessels)
      • Limb vessels (limb-vessels)
        • Vessels - wall of brachial artery smooth muscles (brachial-artery-vasoconstrictors)
        • Vessels - arm blood vessels (arm-blood-vessels)
        • Vessels - forearm blood vessels (forearm-blood-vessels)
    • Endocrine Glands (TARGET.TEA.ENDOCRINE) (TARGET.TEA.ENDOCRINE, targeteffector)
      • Endocrine head (endocrine-head)
      • Endocrine neck (endocrine-neck)
        • Endocrine - thyroid gland (endocrine-thyroid-gland)
        • Endocrine - parathyroid gland (endocrine-parathyroid-gland)
      • Endocrine body (endocrine-body)
        • Endocrine - pancreas (endocrine-pancreas)
          • Endocrine - pancreas, sympathetic (endocrine-pancreas-adrenergic)
          • Endocrine - pancreas, parasympathetic (endocrine-pancreas-muscarinic)
        • Endocrine - adrenal gland (endocrine-adrenal-gland)
      • Endocrine - gonads (endocrine-gonads)
        • Endocrine - testicle gland (endocrine-testicle-gland)
        • Endocrine - ovary gland (endocrine-ovary-gland)

Brodmann Areas of Cerebral Cortex

Verified by:

outline.gif

Anterior Lobe

(generated)

Parietal Lobe

(generated)

Occipital Lobe

(generated)

Temporal Lobe

(generated)

Parahippocampal Lobe

(generated)

Nuclei List

Below nuclei list is upper part of brain hierarchy up to mapped regions. Coverage verified by:

Forebrain Telencephalon

(generated)

Forebrain Diencephalon

(generated)

Midbrain Mesencephalon

(generated)

Hindbrain Metencephalon

(generated)

Hindbrain Myelencephalon

(generated)

Spinal Cord

(generated)

Peripheral Nervous System

(generated)

Cranial Nerves

Pons relay signals from the forebrain to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with:

  • sleep
  • respiration
  • swallowing
  • bladder control
  • hearing
  • equilibrium
  • taste
  • eye movement
  • facial expressions
  • facial sensation
  • posture

Cranial nerves:

  • 0 - cranial nerve zero: detection of pheromones
  • 1 - olfactory nerve: transmits the sense of smell
  • 2 - optic nerve: transmits visual information to the brain
  • 3 - oculomotor nerve: perform most eye movements
  • 4 - trochlear nerve: depresses, rotates laterally - around the optic axis, and intorts the eyeball
  • 5 - trigeminal nerve: receives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication
  • 6 - abducens nerve: abducts the eye
  • 7 - facial nerve: motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, receives the special sense of taste from anterior tongue, secretomotor innervation to the salivary glands and lacrimal gland
  • 8 - vestibulocochlear nerve: senses sound, rotation and gravity, carries impulses for equilibrium
  • 9 - glossopharyngeal nerve: receives taste from the posterior tongue
  • 10 - vagus nerve: branchiomotor innervation to most laryngeal and all pharyngeal muscles, receives the special sense of taste from the epiglottis, controls muscles for voice and resonance and the soft palate
  • 11 - accessory nerve: controls sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, overlaps with functions of the vagus
  • 12 - hypoglossal nerve: motor innervation to the muscles of the tongue, swallowing and speech articulation

Diagrams

Brodmann Areas:

brein9.jpg

Spinal Cord Nuclei:

spinal-cord-nuclei.jpg

Left and Right Brains:

BrainMindOrganization.jpg

REM Sleep:

d_11_cr_cyc_2a.jpg

References