BrainRegionLMC MM VTA

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Ventral Tegmental Area

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This page covers biological details of component Ventral Tegmental Area. Region is part of aHuman target integrated biological model.

  • Top-down path to region: Midbrain Mesencephalon -> Ventral Tegmental Area (LMC.MM.VTA) (see Mind Maps)
  • Type: nucleus
  • Brain area: Lower Brain - Modulatory Contol Area
  • Role: processor.autonomic
  • Function: Respond to novel stimuli, unexpected rewards, and reward predictive sensory cues

(generated)

Components

(generated)


Component items:

  • Ventral Tegmental Nucleus (LMC.MM.VTG): moderates hippocampal-driven rhythmic firing frequency in medial mammillary
  • Parabrachial Pigmented Area
  • Paranigral Nucleus
  • Parafasciculus Retroflexus Area

Connectivity

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LMC.MM.VTA.dot.png

Inbound Region Connections:

Source Area Source Region Source Name Type Reference
FAM FAM.FD.LHB.MED Lateral Habenula Medial Part excitatory-glu Both LHb and MHb control the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems (LHbM -> VTA)
FAM.FT.BNST Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis excitatory-glu (unknown reference)
FEC FEC.FT.ACC.CORE Nucleus Accumbens Core inhibitory-gaba Reward circuit of human brain (NACC -> VTA, abstract)
FEC.FT.VP.VM Ventral Pallidum Ventromedial inhibitory-gaba Craving (VPAL -> VTA, abstract)
FEC.HT.TG.IPD Interpeduncular Nucleus modulatory-ach Both LHb and MHb control the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems (IPN -> VTA)
FEC.HT.TG.RMTG Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus inhibitory-gaba Amygdala and its network (RMTG -> VTA)
LPC LPC.HL.SOL Solitary Nucleus excitatory-glu Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity (NTS -> VTA)

Outbound Region Connections:

Target Area Target Region Target Name Type Reference
FAM FAM.FT.AM.CEC Central Amygdaloid Nucleus, capsular subdivision modulatory-da Reward circuit of human brain (VTA -> AM, abstract)
FEC FEC.FT.ACC.SH Nucleus Accumbens Shell modulatory-da Craving (VTA -> NACC, abstract)
FEC.FT.PU.LT Dorsal Putamen Lateral modulatory-da Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity (VTA -> DS, abstract)
FEC.FT.PU.MED Dorsal Putamen Medial modulatory-da Bowels control brain: gut hormones and obesity (VTA -> DS, abstract)
FMM FMM.FD.MB.MMB Medial Mammillary Nucleus modulatory-da Mammillary bodies: two memory systems in one (VTN -> MMB)
FMM.FT.HC.CA1D Distal CA1 of Hippocampus modulatory-da Reward circuit of human brain (VTA -> HC, abstract)
FMM.NC.PH.LEC Lateral Entorhinal Cortex modulatory-da Combining Novelty, Motivational Salience, and Reward to Control Attention and Learning (VTA -> EC, abstract)
LAC LAC.FD.HT.PRM Premammillary Nucleus modulatory-da (unknown reference)
LAC.FD.HT.PV Paraventricular Nucleus modulatory-da Physiology and pathophysiology of lower urinary tract (VTA -> PVN)
NDM NDM.NC.AL.DACG Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Area modulatory-da (unknown reference)
NDM.NC.AL.FPC Lateral Frontopolar Cortex modulatory-da Amygdala and its network (VTA -> MPFC, abstract)

Thirdparty Circuits

(generated)

AMG=Amygdala,FAM.FT.AM
Caud=Caudate Nucleus,FEC.FT.CN (see Basal Ganglia)
DACC=Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Area,NDM.NC.AL.DACG
DLPFC=Mid-Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex,NDM.NC.AL.DLPFC (see Lateral Prefrontal Cortex)
Hipp=Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC (see Hippocampal Formation)
IFG=Inferior Prefrontal Gyrus,NDM.NC.AL.IPG
LSN=Lateral Spinal Nucleus,LAC.SC.LH.LSN
MPFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
NACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
OFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
PhippG=Entorhinal Cortex,FMM.NC.PH.ET (see Rhinal Cortex)
Put=Dorsal Putamen,FEC.FT.DPU (see Basal Ganglia)
SGC=Subgenual Cingulate Cortex,NCP.NC.AL.SGCG
SN=Substantia Nigra,FEC.FT.SN (see Basal Ganglia)
VACC=Ventral Anterior Cingulate Area,NDM.NC.AL.VACG
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA
VentPal=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)

ADTH=Anterodorsal Nucleus,FMM.FD.TH.AD
AMTH=Anteromedial Nucleus,NCP.FD.TH.AM
AVTH=Anteroventral Nucleus,FMM.FD.TH.AV
DTN=Laterodorsal Tegmental Nucleus,LMC.HT.TG.LDT
LMB=Lateral Mammillary Nucleus,FMM.FD.MB.LMB
MMB=Medial Mammillary Nucleus,FMM.FD.MB.MMB
MedialEC=Entorhinal Cortex,FMM.NC.PH.ET (see Rhinal Cortex)
PAS=Parasubiculum,FMM.NC.PH.PAS
POS=Postsubiculum,FMM.NC.PH.POS
PRS=Presubiculum,FMM.NC.PH.PRS
SEP=Septal Nuclei,FAM.FT.SEP
SUB=Subiculum,FMM.FT.HF.SUB (see Hippocampal Formation)
SupraMM=Supramammillary Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.SUM
TuberoMM=Lateral Tuberal Nuclei,LAC.FD.HT.LTUB (see Hypothalamus)
VTN=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

ACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
CA1=Ventrolateral Cornu Ammonis of Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC.CA1 (see Hippocampal Formation)
CA3=Dorsomedial Cornu Ammonis of Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC.CA3 (see Hippocampal Formation)
DG=Dentate Gyrus,FMM.FT.HC.DG
EC=Entorhinal Cortex,FMM.NC.PH.ET (see Rhinal Cortex)
PFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
PPTG=Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nuclei,LMC.HT.TG.PPN
SUB=Subiculum,FMM.FT.HF.SUB (see Hippocampal Formation)
VPAL=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

AMY=Amygdala,FAM.FT.AM
ARC=Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus,LAC.FD.HT.AR
DS=Dorsal Striatum,FEC.FT.DST (see Basal Ganglia)
LHA=Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.LTN
ME=Endocrine Glands,TARGET.TEA.ENDOCRINE
NAc=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
NTS=Solitary Nucleus,LPC.HL.SOL
OFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
PBN=Parabrachial Nucleus,LPC.HT.PRF.PB
PVN=Paraventricular Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.PV
VMN=Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.VM
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

CN=Caudate Nucleus,FEC.FT.CN (see Basal Ganglia)
DVM=Vagus Nucleus,LAC.HL.VGN
IMG=Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion,LAC.PN.SYM.IMG
IML=Intermediolateral Nucleus,LAC.SC.IZ.IML
LC=Locus Coeruleus,LMC.HT.LC
MPFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
MPOA=Median Preoptic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.MPO
NBM=Basal Nucleus of Meynert,LMC.FT.NBM
ONF=Onuf's Nucleus,LPC.SC.VH.ONF
PBN=Parabrachial Nucleus,LPC.HT.PRF.PB
PEL=Pelvic Peripheral Ganglion,LAC.PN.PSYM.PPG
PU=Dorsal Putamen Lateral,FEC.FT.PU.LT
PVN=Paraventricular Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.PV
SNC=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Lateral,FEC.FT.SNC.LT
SPS=Sacral Parasympathetic Nucleus,LAC.SC.IZ.SPS
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA
ZI=Subthalamic Nucleus Caudal,BGA.FD.STN.ZI

AM=Amygdala,FAM.FT.AM
HC=Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC (see Hippocampal Formation)
NACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
PFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
VPAL=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

NACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
OMPFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
SNr=Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Medial,FEC.FT.SNR.MED
VPAL=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

BLN=Parvicellular Basal Amygdaloid Nucleus,FAM.FT.AM.BP
CEA=Central Amygdala,FAM.FT.AM.CEA (see Amygdala)
EC=Entorhinal Cortex,FMM.NC.PH.ET (see Rhinal Cortex)
HC=Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC (see Hippocampal Formation)
HTS=Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.LTN
ITC=Inferotemporal Cortex,NSA.NC.IT.TE
LA=Lateral Amygdaloid Nucleus,FAM.FT.AM.LA (see Amygdala)
LHB=Lateral Habenula,FAM.FD.LHB (see Habenula)
MD=Mediodorsal Nucleus of Thalamus,FD.TH.MD (see Cognitive Thalamus)
MPFC=Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OMPFC
NACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
PAG=Periaqueductal Gray Matter,LMC.MM.PAG
RMTG=Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.RMTG
STC=Wernicke's area A3,NSA.NC.STG.A3
VGDM=Vagus Nucleus,LAC.HL.VGN
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

AVTH=Anteroventral Nucleus,FMM.FD.TH.AV
HF=Hippocampal Formation,FMM.FT.HF
MMB=Medial Mammillary Nucleus,FMM.FD.MB.MMB
RSP=Retrosplenial Cortex,NCP.NC.MPL.RSC
SEP=Septal Nuclei,FAM.FT.SEP
SupraMM=Supramammillary Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.SUM
VTN=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

AMYG=Amygdala,FAM.FT.AM
CGa=Anterior Cingulate Cortex,NC.AL.ACG (see Anterior Cingulate Area)
CGp=Posterior Cingulate Cortex,NCP.NC.MPL.PSCG
Caudate=Caudate Nucleus,FEC.FT.CN (see Basal Ganglia)
FEF=Frontal Eye Field,NMA.NC.PMC.FEF (see Premotor Cortex)
LIP=Lateral Intraparietal Sulcus,NPE.NC.IPS.LIP
NAC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
OFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
PFC=Mid-Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex,NDM.NC.AL.DLPFC (see Lateral Prefrontal Cortex)
SC=Superior Colliculus,MM.SC (see Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon)
SEF=Supplementary Eye Field,NPE.NC.SMC.SEF
SNc=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Lateral,FEC.FT.SNC.LT
SNr=Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Dorsolateral,FEC.FT.SNR.DL
Thalamus=Thalamus,FD.TH
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

DBB=Diagonal Band of Broca,FAM.FT.SEP.DBB
DTG=Laterodorsal Tegmental Nucleus,LMC.HT.TG.DTG
EPN=Endopiriform Nucleus,FAM.FT.EPF
GPi=Globus Pallidus Internal,FEC.FT.GPI (see Basal Ganglia)
LHT=Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.LTN
LHbL=Lateral Habenula Lateral Part,FAM.FD.LHB.LT
LHbM=Lateral Habenula Medial Part,FAM.FD.LHB.MED
NI=Incertus Nucleus,FAM.HT.TG.NI
RMTg=Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.RMTG
Raphe=Raphe Nuclei of Medulla,LMC.HL.RP (see Medullary Reticular Formation)
SNc=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta,FEC.FT.SNC (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA
VTG=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTG

DBB=Diagonal Band of Broca,FAM.FT.SEP.DBB
DRN=Dorsal Raphe Nucleus,LMC.MM.RP.DRN
GPb=Dorsal Pallidum,FEC.FT.DP (see Basal Ganglia)
IPN=Interpeduncular Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.IPD
LHA=Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.LTN
LHbL=Lateral Habenula Lateral Part,FAM.FD.LHB.LT
LHbM=Lateral Habenula Medial Part,FAM.FD.LHB.MED
LPO=Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.VLPO
LS=Lateral Septal Nucleus,FAM.FT.SEP.LT
MHb=Medial Habenula,FAM.FD.MHB
MRN=Raphe Nuclei of Medulla,LMC.HL.RP (see Medullary Reticular Formation)
MS=Medial Septal Nucleus,FAM.FT.SEP.MED
PS=Posterior Septal Group,FAM.FT.SEP.PG (see Septal Nuclei)
RMTg=Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.RMTG
SNc=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta,FEC.FT.SNC (see Basal Ganglia)
VP=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

CPu=Striatum,FEC.FT.ST (see Basal Ganglia)
DBB=Diagonal Band of Broca,FAM.FT.SEP.DBB
DR=Dorsal Raphe Nucleus,LMC.MM.RP.DRN
GPi=Globus Pallidus Internal,FEC.FT.GPI (see Basal Ganglia)
IP=Interpeduncular Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.IPD
LH=Lateral Hypothalamic Area,LAC.FD.HT.LT (see Hypothalamus)
LHb=Lateral Habenula,FAM.FD.LHB (see Habenula)
LPO=Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.VLPO
MHb=Medial Habenula,FAM.FD.MHB
MR=Superior Central Raphe Nucleus,LMC.MM.RP.SUC
PB=Endocrine Glands,TARGET.TEA.ENDOCRINE
S=Septal Nuclei,FAM.FT.SEP
SNc=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta Lateral,FEC.FT.SNC.LT
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

CPu=Striatum,FEC.FT.ST (see Basal Ganglia)
EP=Endopiriform Nucleus,FAM.FT.EPF
Hippo=Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC (see Hippocampal Formation)
IPN=Interpeduncular Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.IPD
L=Lateral Habenula,FAM.FD.LHB (see Habenula)
LH=Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.LTN
M=Medial Habenula,FAM.FD.MHB
NAc=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
PAG=Periaqueductal Gray Matter,LMC.MM.PAG
Raphe=Raphe Nuclei of Medulla,LMC.HL.RP (see Medullary Reticular Formation)
SNc=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta,FEC.FT.SNC (see Basal Ganglia)
Septum=Septal Nuclei,FAM.FT.SEP
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA


References

(generated)