BrainRegionFEC FT VP VM

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Ventral Pallidum Ventromedial

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This page covers biological details of component Ventral Pallidum Ventromedial. Region is part of aHuman target integrated biological model.

  • Top-down path to region: Forebrain Telencephalon -> Basal Ganglia (FEC.FT.BG) -> Globus Pallidus (FEC.FT.GP) -> Ventral Pallidum (FEC.FT.VP) -> Ventral Pallidum Ventromedial (FEC.FT.VP.VM) (see Mind Maps)
  • Type: nucleus
  • Brain area: Forebrain - Execution Control Area
  • Role: basal.ganglia.pallidum
  • Function: motivational loop, NAcc-shell
  • Notes to function: projects to VTA, MD; circuit - VP-VM-medial, VMPFC, NAcc-medial-shell, MD-rostral-medial; circuit - VP-VM-lateral, VINS, NAcc-VL, MD-central




  • no child items defined



Inbound Region Connections:

Source Area Source Region Source Name Type Reference
FEC FEC.FD.STN.DL Subthalamic Nucleus Dorsolateral excitatory-glu Functional subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN -> VP, abstract)
FEC.FT.ACC.SH Nucleus Accumbens Shell inhibitory-gaba Craving (NACC -> VPAL, abstract)
FEC.FT.IPAC.LT Lateral Interstitial Anterior Commissural Nucleus inhibitory-gaba (unknown reference)

Outbound Region Connections:

Target Area Target Region Target Name Type Reference
FAM FAM.FD.LHB.MED Lateral Habenula Medial Part inhibitory-gaba Both LHb and MHb control the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems (VP -> LHbM, abstract)
FAM.FD.TH.PT Paratenial Nucleus of Thalamus inhibitory-gaba Saccadic Vision (BG -> Thalamus, abstract)
FEC FEC.HT.TG.RMTG Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus inhibitory-gaba (unknown reference)
LMC LMC.HT.TG.PPN Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nuclei inhibitory-gaba Combining Novelty, Motivational Salience, and Reward to Control Attention and Learning (VPAL -> PPTG, abstract)
LMC.MM.VTA Ventral Tegmental Area inhibitory-gaba Craving (VPAL -> VTA, abstract)
NCP NCP.FD.TH.MDC Central Mediodorsal Nucleus of Thalamus inhibitory-gaba Saccadic Vision (BG -> Thalamus, abstract)

Thirdparty Circuits


ACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
CA1=Ventrolateral Cornu Ammonis of Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC.CA1 (see Hippocampal Formation)
CA3=Dorsomedial Cornu Ammonis of Hippocampus,FMM.FT.HC.CA3 (see Hippocampal Formation)
DG=Dentate Gyrus,FMM.FT.HC.DG
EC=Entorhinal Cortex,FMM.NC.PH.ET (see Rhinal Cortex)
PFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
PPTG=Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nuclei,LMC.HT.TG.PPN
SUB=Subiculum,FMM.FT.HF.SUB (see Hippocampal Formation)
VPAL=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

BG=Basal Ganglia,FEC.FT.BG
CN=Caudate Nucleus,FEC.FT.CN (see Basal Ganglia)
CR=Cerebellum,LLC.HT.CR (see Cerebellar Complex)
FrontalCortex=Anterior Lobe,NC.LOBE.ANT
GPe=Globus Pallidus External,FEC.FT.GPE (see Basal Ganglia)
LGN=Lateral Geniculate Nucleus,NSA.FD.LGN
LIP=Lateral Intraparietal Sulcus,NPE.NC.IPS.LIP
RF=Pontine Reticular Formation,HT.RF
Retina=Retinal Nucleus,LPC.FD.RT
SCi=Superior Colliculus,MM.SC (see Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon)
SCs=Superior Colliculus,MM.SC (see Reflexes Nuclei of Midbrain Mesencephalon)
SNpr=Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Dorsolateral,FEC.FT.SNR.DL
STN=Subthalamic Nucleus,FEC.FD.STN (see Subthalamus Area)
VisualCortex=Occipital Lobe,NC.LOBE.OCC

DBB=Diagonal Band of Broca,FAM.FT.SEP.DBB
DRN=Dorsal Raphe Nucleus,LMC.MM.RP.DRN
GPb=Dorsal Pallidum,FEC.FT.DP (see Basal Ganglia)
IPN=Interpeduncular Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.IPD
LHA=Lateral Hypothalamic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.LTN
LHbL=Lateral Habenula Lateral Part,FAM.FD.LHB.LT
LHbM=Lateral Habenula Medial Part,FAM.FD.LHB.MED
LPO=Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus,LAC.FD.HT.VLPO
LS=Lateral Septal Nucleus,FAM.FT.SEP.LT
MHb=Medial Habenula,FAM.FD.MHB
MRN=Raphe Nuclei of Medulla,LMC.HL.RP (see Medullary Reticular Formation)
MS=Medial Septal Nucleus,FAM.FT.SEP.MED
PS=Posterior Septal Group,FAM.FT.SEP.PG (see Septal Nuclei)
RMTg=Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus,FEC.HT.TG.RMTG
SNc=Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta,FEC.FT.SNC (see Basal Ganglia)
VP=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA

NACC=Accumbens Nucleus,FEC.FT.ACC (see Basal Ganglia)
OMPFC=Orbitofrontal Cortex,NC.AL.OPFC (see Orbitomedial Prefrontal Cortex)
SNr=Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata Medial,FEC.FT.SNR.MED
VPAL=Ventral Pallidum,FEC.FT.VP (see Basal Ganglia)
VTA=Ventral Tegmental Area,LMC.MM.VTA